Keyword: FEL
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MOA01 John Madey: A Short History of My Friend and Colleague ion, electron, undulator, laser 1
 
  • L.R. Elias
    University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA
 
  I thank the organizing committee for inviting me to share with you some stories of my friend and colleague John Madey, who passed away on July 2016 in Honolulu, Hawaii.  
slides icon Slides MOA01 [0.073 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOA01  
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MOBA02 Coherence Limits of X-ray FEL Radiation ion, radiation, electron, photon 5
 
  • M.V. Yurkov, E. Schneidmiller
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  The most simple and robust technique for production of short wavelength radiation is Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FEL. Amplification process in SASE FELs develops from the shot noise in the electron beam, and powerful radiation is produced by single pass of the electron beam through the undulator. Serving as a seed, shot noise effects impose fundamental limits on the coherence properties of the radiation (both, temporal and spatial). FEL theory reached mature status allowing elegant description of the shot noise phenomena, and in this report we present relevant overview.  
slides icon Slides MOBA02 [2.606 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOBA02  
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MOC03 Commissioning and First Lasing of the European XFEL ion, MMI, linac, electron 9
 
  • H. Weise, W. Decking
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by the respective funding agencies of the contributing institutes; for details please see http:www.xfel.eu
The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) in Hamburg, Northern Germany, aims at producing X-rays in the range from 260 eV to 24 keV out of three undulators that can be operated simultaneously with up to 27,000 pulses per second. The XFEL is driven by a 17.5 GeV superconducting linac. This linac is the worldwide largest installation based on superconducting radio-frequency acceleration. The design is using the so-called TESLA technology which was developed for the superconducting version of an international electron positron linear collider. After eight years of construction the facility is now brought into operation. First lasing was demonstrated in May 2017. Experience with the super-conducting accelerator as well as beam commissioning results will be presented. The path to the first user experiments will be laid down.
 
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DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOC03  
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MOD02 Status of the FLASH FEL User Facility at DESY ion, operation, electron, experiment 14
 
  • K. Honkavaara
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  The FLASH facility at DESY (Hamburg, Germany) provides high brilliance FEL radiation at XUV and soft X-ray wavelengths for user experiments. Since April 2016, the second undulator beamline, FLASH2, is in user operation. We summarize the performance of the FLASH facility during the last two years including our experience to deliver FEL radiation to two user experiments simultaneously.  
slides icon Slides MOD02 [6.543 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOD02  
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MOD04 Status and Perspectives of the FERMI FEL Facility ion, electron, laser, experiment 19
 
  • L. Giannessi, E. Allaria, L. Badano, F. Bencivenga, C. Callegari, F. Capotondi, F. Cilento, P. Cinquegrana, M. Coreno, I. Cudin, G. D'Auria, M.B. Danailov, R. De Monte, G. De Ninno, P. Delgiusto, A.A. Demidovich, M. Di Fraia, S. Di Mitri, B. Diviacco, A. Fabris, R. Fabris, W.M. Fawley, M. Ferianis, P. Furlan Radivo, G. Gaio, D. Gauthier, F. Gelmetti, F. Iazzourene, S. Krecic, M. Lonza, N. Mahne, M. Malvestuto, C. Masciovecchio, M. Milloch, N.S. Mirian, F. Parmigiani, G. Penco, A. Perucchi, L. Pivetta, O. Plekan, M. Predonzani, E. Principi, L. Raimondi, P. Rebernik Ribič, F. Rossi, E. Roussel, L. Rumiz, C. Scafuri, C. Serpico, P. Sigalotti, S. Spampinati, C. Spezzani, M. Svandrlik, M. Trovò, A. Vascotto, M. Veronese, R. Visintini, D. Zangrando, M. Zangrando
    Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Basovizza, Italy
 
  FERMI is the seeded Free Electron Laser (FEL) user facility at the Elettra laboratory in Trieste, operating in the VUV to EUV and soft X-rays spectral range; the radiation produced by the seeded FEL is characterised by a number of desirable properties, such as wavelength stability, low temporal jitter and longitudinal coherence. In this paper, after an overview of the FELs performances, we will present the development plans under consideration for the next 3 to 5 years. These include an upgrade of the LINAC and of the existing FEL lines, the possibility to perform multi-pulse experiments in different configurations and an Echo Enabled Harmonic Generation experiment on FEL-2, the FEL line extending to 4 nm (310 eV).  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOD04  
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MOD06 Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) Project Overview ion, photon, electron, cavity 24
 
  • R.L. Sheffield, C.W. Barnes, J.P. Tapia
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
 
  The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) requires the ability to understand and test how material structures, defects and interfaces determine performance in extreme environments. The MaRIE Project will provide the science ability for control of materials and their production for vital national security missions. To meet the mission requirements, MaRIE must be an x-ray source that has high brilliance and with very flexible and fast pulses to observe phenomena at shock-relevant time scales, and with high enough energy to study high-Z materials. This talk will cover the rationale for the machine requirements, a pre-conceptual reference design that can meet those requirements, and preliminary research needed to address the critical high risk technologies.  
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DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOD06  
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MOP001 Diamond Double-Crystal System for a Forward Bragg Diffraction X-Ray Monochromator of the Self-Seeded PAL XFEL ion, photon, electron, laser 29
 
  • Yu. Shvyd'ko, J.W.J. Anton, S.P. Kearney, K.-J. Kim, T. Kolodziej, D. Shu
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • V.D. Blank, S. Terentiev
    TISNCM, Troitsk, Russia
  • H.-S. Kang, C.-K. Min, B.G. Oh
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  • P. Vodnala
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
 
  An x-ray monochromator for a hard x-ray self-seeding system is planned at PAL XFEL to be used in a 3-keV to 10-keV photon spectral range. The monochromatization in a 5 keV to 7 keV range will be achieved by forward Bragg diffraction (FBD) from a 30-micron-thin diamond crystal in the [110] orientation employing the (220) symmetric Bragg reflection. FBD from the same crystal using the (111) asymmetric Bragg reflection will provide monochromatization in a 3 keV to 5 keV spectral range. In the 7-keV to 10-keV spectral range, a 100-micron crystal in the [100] orientation will be used employing FBD with the (400) symmetric Bragg reflection. Two almost defect-free diamond crystals in the required orientations and thicknesses are mounted in a strain-free mechanically-stable fashion on a common CVD diamond substrate using all-diamond components, ensuring radiation-safe XFEL operations with improved heat transport. We will present results of the optical and engineering designs, manufacturing, and x-ray diffraction topography characterization of the diamond double-crystal system.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP001  
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MOP003 Concept for a Seeded FEL at FLASH2 ion, electron, laser, undulator 34
 
  • C. Lechner, R.W. Aßmann, J. Bödewadt, M. Dohlus, N. Ekanayake, G. Feng, I. Hartl, T. Laarmann, T. Lang, L. Winkelmann, I. Zagorodnov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • A. Azima, M. Drescher, Th. Maltezopoulos, T. Plath, J. Roßbach, W. Wurth
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • S. Khan, T. Plath
    DELTA, Dortmund, Germany
 
  The free-electron laser (FEL) FLASH is a user facility delivering photon pulses down to 4 nm wavelength. Recently, the second FEL undulator beamline 'FLASH2' was added to the facility. Operating in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode, the exponential amplification process is initiated by shot noise of the electron bunch resulting in photon pulses of limited temporal coherence. In seeded FELs, the FEL process is initiated by coherent seed radiation, improving the longitudinal coherence of the generated photon pulses. The conceptual design of a possible seeding option for the FLASH2 beamline envisages the installation of the hardware needed for high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) seeding upstream of the already existing undulator system. In this contribution, we present the beamline design and numerical simulations of the seeded FEL.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP003  
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MOP005 FEL Pulse Shortening by Superradiance at FERMI ion, electron, laser, free-electron-laser 38
 
  • N.S. Mirian, L. Giannessi
    Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Basovizza, Italy
  • S. Spampinati
    Private Address, warrigton, United Kingdom
 
  Explorations of saturated superradiant regime is one of the methods that could be used to reduce the duration of the pulses delivered by FERMI. Here we present simulation studies that show the possible application of a superradiant cascade leading to a minimum pulse duration below 8 fs and to a peak power exceeding the GW level in both FEL lines FEL-1 and FEL-2.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP005  
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MOP008 Status of the Hard X-Ray Self-Seeding Project at the European XFEL ion, electron, laser, free-electron-laser 42
 
  • G. Geloni, S. Karabekyan, L. Samoylova, S. Serkez, H. Sinn
    XFEL. EU, Hamburg, Germany
  • V.D. Blank, S. Terentiev
    TISNCM, Troitsk, Russia
  • W. Decking, C. Engling, N. Golubeva, V. Kocharyan, B. Krause, S. Lederer, S. Liu, A. Petrov, E. Saldin, T. Wohlenberg
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • X. Dong
    European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility GmbH, Schelefeld, Germany
  • D. Shu
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
 
  A Hard X-ray Self-Seeding setup is currently under realization at the European XFEL, and will be ready for installation in 2018. The setup consists of two single-crystal monochromators that will be installed at the SASE2 undulator line. In this contribution, after a short summary of the physical principles and of the design, we will discuss the present status of the project including both electron beam and X-ray optics hardware. We will also briefly discuss the expected performance of the setup, which is expected to produce nearly Fourier-limited pulses of X-ray radiation with increased brightness compared to the baseline of the European XFEL, as well as possible complementary uses of the two electron chicanes.  
poster icon Poster MOP008 [2.445 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP008  
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MOP013 Hundred-Gigawatt X-Ray Self-Seeded High-Gain Harmonic Generation ion, undulator, electron, radiation 53
 
  • L. Zeng, S. Huang, K.X. Liu, W. Qin, G. Zhao
    PKU, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • Y. Ding, Z. Huang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Self-seeded high-gain harmonic generation is a possible way to extend the wavelength of a soft x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). We have carried out simulation study on harmonic generation within the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4.5 keV, which is difficult to achieve due to a lack of monochromator materials. In this work, we demonstrate the third harmonic FEL with the fundamental wavelength at 1.52 nm. Our results shows that, by using undulator tapering technique, sub-terawatt narrow-bandwidth FEL output can be obtained.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP013  
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MOP014 Harmonic Lasing Towards Shorter Wavelengths in Soft X-Ray Self-Seeding FELs ion, undulator, radiation, photon 57
 
  • L. Zeng, S. Huang, K.X. Liu, W. Qin, G. Zhao
    PKU, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • Y. Ding, Z. Huang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  In this paper, we study a simple harmonic lasing scheme to extend the wavelength of X-ray self-seeding FELs. The self-seeding amplifier is comprised of two stages. In the first stage, the fundamental radiation is amplified but well restricted below saturation, and simultaneously harmonic radiation is generated. In the second stage, the fundamental radiation is suppressed while the harmonic radiation is amplified to saturation. We performed a start-to-end simulation to demonstrate third harmonic lasing in a soft x-ray self-seeding FEL at the fundamental wavelength of 1.52 nm. Our simulations show that a stable narrow-band FEL at GW levels can be obtained.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP014  
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MOP016 Comparing FEL Codes for Advanced Configurations ion, simulation, electron, laser 60
 
  • B.W. Garcia, G. Marcus
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • L.T. Campbell
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • B.W.J. MᶜNeil
    USTRAT/SUPA, Glasgow, United Kingdom
  • S. Reiche
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
 
  Various FEL codes employ different approximations and strategies to model the FEL radiation generation process. Many codes perform averaging procedures over various length scales in order to simplify the underlying dynamics. As FELs are developed in more advanced configurations beyond simple SASE, the assumptions of some codes may be called into question. We compare the unaveraged code Puffin to averaged FEL codes including a new version of GENESIS in a variety of situations. In particular, we study a harmonic lasing setup, a High-Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) configuration modeled after the FERMI setup, and a potential Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) configuration also at FERMI. We find the codes are in good agreement, although small discrepancies do exist.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP016  
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MOP017 Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Results with Energy Chirp ion, laser, bunching, electron 64
 
  • B.W. Garcia, M.P. Dunning, C. Hast, E. Hemsing, T.O. Raubenheimer, G. Stupakov
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • D. Xiang
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
 
  We report here on several experimental results from the NLCTA at SLAC involving chirped Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) beams. We directly observe the sensitivity of the different n EEHG modes to a linear beam chirp. This differential sensitivity results in a multi-color EEHG signal which can be fine tuned through the EEHG parameters and beam chirp. We also generate a beam which, due to a timing delay between the two seed lasers, contains both regions of EEHG and High-Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) bunching. The two regions are clearly separated on the resulting radiation spectrum due to a linear energy chirp, and one can simultaneously monitor their sensitivities.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP017  
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MOP018 Distributed Self-Seeding Scheme for LCLS-II ion, undulator, simulation, electron 68
 
  • C. Yang, Y. Feng, T.O. Raubenheimer, C.-Y. Tsai, J. Wu, M. Yoon, G. Zhou
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • B. Yang
    University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, USA
 
  Funding: The work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 and the US DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program grant FWP-2013-SLAC-100164.
Self-seeding is a successful approach for generating high-brightness x-ray free electron laser (XFEL). A single-crystal monochromator in-between the undulator sections to generate a coherent seed is adopted in LCLS. However, for a high-repetition rate machine like LCLS-II, the crystal monochromator in current setup cannot sustain the high average power; hence a distributed self-seeding scheme utilizing multi-stages is necessary. Based on the criteria set on the crystal, the maximum allowed x-ray energy deposited in the crystal will determine the machine configuration for such a distributed self-seeding scheme. In this paper, a distributed self-seeding configuration is optimized for LCLS-II type projects in the hard x-ray FEL energy regime. The study is carried out based on numerical simulation.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP018  
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MOP019 Transient Thermal Stress Wave Analysis of a Thin Diamond Crystal Under Laser Heat Load ion, laser, site, electron 72
 
  • J. Wu
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • B. Yang
    University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, USA
 
  Funding: The work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 and the US DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program grant FWP-2013-SLAC-100164.
When a laser pulse impinges on a thin crystal, energy is deposited resulting in an instantaneous temperature surge in the local volume and emission of stress waves. In the present work, we perform a transient thermal stress wave analysis of a diamond layer 200 μm thick in the low energy deposition per pulse regime. The layer thickness and laser spot size are comparable. The analysis reveals the characteristic non-planar stress wave propagation. The stress wave emission lasts by hundreds of nanoseconds, at a time scale relevant to the high-repetition-rate FELs at the megahertz range. The kinetic energy converted from the thermal strain energy is calculated, which may be important to estimate the vibrational amplitude of the thin crystal when excited under repeated heat loads. The transient heat transfer plays an important role in draining the mechanical energy during the dynamic wave emission process.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP019  
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MOP020 Sideband Instability in a Tapered Free Electron Laser ion, electron, undulator, laser 76
 
  • C.-Y. Tsai
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
  • J. Wu, C. Yang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • M. Yoon
    POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  • G. Zhou
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  Funding: The work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 and the US DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program grant FWP-2013-SLAC-100164.
For a high-gain tapered free electron laser (FEL), it is known that there is a so-called second saturation point where the FEL power growth stops. Sideband instability is one of the major reasons leading to this second-saturation and thus prevents reaching terawatt-level power output in an X-ray FEL. It is believed that a strong taper can effectively suppress the sideband instability and further improve the efficiency and peak power. In this paper, we give quantitative analysis on the necessary taper gradient to minimize the sideband growth. We also discuss the transverse effects of induced electron de-trapping which is yet another major reason for the occurrence of the second-saturation point even with a strong enough taper. The study is carried out analytically together with numerical simulation. The numerical parameters are taken from LCLS-II type electron bunch and undulator system.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP020  
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MOP021 Sideband Suppression in Tapered Free Electron Lasers ion, electron, undulator, laser 80
 
  • C.-Y. Tsai
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
  • J. Wu, C. Yang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • M. Yoon
    POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  • G. Zhou
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  Funding: The work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 and the US DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program grant FWP-2013-SLAC-100164.
It is known that in a high-gain tapered free electron laser, there is the so-called second saturation point where the FEL power ceases to grow. Sideband instability is one of the major reasons causing this second saturation. Electron synchrotron oscillation coupling to the wideband SASE radiation leads to the appearance of sidebands in the FEL spectrum, and is believed to prevent a self-seeding tapered FEL from reaching very high peak power. A strong seed together with a fresh electron bunch or a fresh slice in conjunction with strong tapering of undulators can effectively suppress the sideband instability. In this paper, we give quantitative analysis on the necessary seed power as well as undulator tapering to minimize the sideband effects. The study is carried out semi-analytically together with numerical simulation. The machine and electron bunch parameters are chosen as those of PAL-XFEL and LCLS-II.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP021  
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MOP023 Two-Color Soft X-Ray Generation at the SXFEL User Facility Based on the EEHG Scheme ion, laser, radiation, electron 84
 
  • Z. Qi, C. Feng, B. Liu, W.Y. Zhang, Z.T. Zhao
    SINAP, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
 
  We study the two-color soft x-ray generation at the Shanghai soft X-ray Free Electron Laser (SXFEL) user facility based on the echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme. Using the twin-pulse seed laser with different central wavelengths, an preliminary simulation result indicates that two-color soft x-ray FEL radiation with wavelengths at 8.890 nm and 8.917 nm can be obtained from the ultraviolet seed laser. The radiation power is about 600 MW and the time delay is adjustable.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP023  
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MOP024 Simulation and Optimization for Soft X-Ray Self-Seeding at SXFEL User Facility ion, simulation, radiation, undulator 87
 
  • K.Q. Zhang, C. Feng, D. Wang, Z.T. Zhao
    SINAP, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
 
  The simulation and optimization studies for the soft x-ray self-seeding experiment at SXFEL have been presented in this paper. Some critical physical problems have been intensively studied to help us obtain a more stable output and a clearer spectrum. The monochromator is optimized considering various unideal conditions such as the reflection rate, diffraction rate and the roughness of the grating and the mirrors. An integrated self-seeding simulation is also presented. The calculation and simulation results show that the properties of the self-seeding can be significantly improved by using the optimized design of the whole system and the evaluation of grating monochromator shows that the presented design is reliable for soft x-ray self-seeding experiment at SXFEL.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP024  
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MOP026 Study of an Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Scheme for the French FEL Project LUNEX5 ion, laser, electron, undulator 91
 
  • E. Roussel, M.-E. Couprie, A. Ghaith, A. Loulergue
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • C. Evain
    PhLAM/CERLA, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
  • D. Garzella
    CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
 
  In the French LUNEX5 project (Laser à électrons libres Utilisant un Nouvel accélérateur pour l'exploitation du rayonnement X de 5ème génération), a compact advanced free-electron laser (FEL) is driven by either a superconducting linac or a laser-plasma accelerator that can deliver a 400-MeV electron beam. LUNEX5 aims to produce FEL radiation in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range. To improve the longitudinal coherence of the FEL pulses and reduce the gain length, it will operate in Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) seeding configuration. EEHG is a strongly nonlinear harmonic up-conversion process based on a two-seed laser interaction that enables to reach very high harmonics of the seed laser. Recent experimental demonstration of ECHO-75, starting from an infrared seed laser, was recently achieved at SLAC and is opened the way for EEHG scheme in the EUV and soft x-ray range. Furthermore, FELs are promising candidates for the next generation of lithography technology using EUV light. In this work, we report a preliminary study of EEHG scheme for LUNEX5 in order to reach the target wavelength of 13.5 nm, currently expected for application to lithography.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP026  
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MOP028 Extraction of the Longitudinal Profile of the Transverse Emittance From Single-Shot RF Deflector Measurements at sFLASH ion, electron, emittance, laser 98
 
  • T. Plath, Ph. Amstutz, L.L. Lazzarino, Th. Maltezopoulos, V. Miltchev, J. Roßbach
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • J. Bödewadt, N. Ekanayake, T. Laarmann, C. Lechner
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • S. Khan
    DELTA, Dortmund, Germany
 
  The gain length of the free-electron laser (FEL) process strongly depends on the slice energy spread, slice emittance, and current of the electron bunch. At an FEL with only moderately compressed electron bunches, the slice energy spread is mainly determined by the compression process. In this regime, single-shot measurements using a transverse deflecting rf cavity enable the extraction of the longitudinal profile of the transverse emittance. At the free-electron laser FLASH at DESY, this technique was used to determine the slice properties of the electron bunch set up for seeded operation in the sFLASH experiment. Thereby, the performance of the seeded FEL process as a function of laser-electron timing can be predicted from these slice properties with the semi-analytical Ming-Xie model where only confined fractions of the electron bunch are stimulated to lase. The prediction is well in line with the FEL peak power observed during an experimental laser-electron timing scan. The power profiles of the FEL pulses were reconstructed from the longitudinal phase-space measurements of the seeded electron bunch that was measured with the rf deflector.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP028  
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MOP031 First Operation of a Harmonic Lasing Self-Seeded FEL ion, undulator, electron, operation 102
 
  • E. Schneidmiller, B. Faatz, M. Kuhlmann, J. Rönsch-Schulenburg, S. Schreiber, M. Tischer, M.V. Yurkov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Harmonic lasing is a perspective mode of operation of X-ray FEL user facilities that allows it to provide brilliant beams of higher-energy photons for user experiments. Another useful application of harmonic lasing is so called Harmonic Lasing Self-Seeded Free Electron Laser (HLSS FEL), that allows it to improve spectral brightness of these facilities. In the past, harmonic lasing has been demonstrated in the FEL oscillators in infrared and visible wavelength ranges, but not in high-gain FELs and not at short wavelengths. In this paper, we report on the first evidence of the harmonic lasing and the first operation of the HLSS FEL at the soft X-ray FEL user facility FLASH in the wavelength range between 4.5 nm and 15 nm. Spectral brightness was improved in comparison with Self-Amplified Spontaneous emission (SASE) FEL by a factor of six in the exponential gain regime. A better performance of HLSS FEL with respect to SASE FEL in the post-saturation regime with a tapered undulator was observed as well. The first demonstration of harmonic lasing in a high-gain FEL and at a short wavelength paves the way for a variety of applications of this new operation mode in X-ray FELs.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP031  
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MOP032 Reverse Undulator Tapering for Polarization Control and Background-Free Harmonic Production in XFELs: Results from FLASH ion, undulator, background, radiation 106
 
  • E. Schneidmiller, M.V. Yurkov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Baseline design of a typical X-ray FEL undulator assumes a planar configuration which results in a linear polarization of the FEL radiation. However, many experiments at X-ray FEL user facilities would profit from using a circularly polarized radiation. As a cheap upgrade, one can consider an installation of a short helical afterburner, but then one should have an efficient method to suppress powerful linearly polarized background from the main undulator. There is an efficient method for such a suppression: an application of the reverse taper in the main undulator.* In this contribution, we present the results of experiments with reverse taper at FLASH2 where a high contrast between FEL intensities from the afterburner and from the reverse-tapered main undulator was demonstrated. Another important application of the reverse taper is a possibility to produce FEL harmonics in the afterburner (or in the last part of baseline gap-tunable undulator). We present recent results from FLASH2 where the second and the third harmonics were efficiently generated with a low background at the fundamental.
* E.A. Schneidmiller and M.V. Yurkov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13-080702 (2013).
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP032  
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MOP033 Baseline Parameters of the European XFEL ion, undulator, electron, photon 109
 
  • E. Schneidmiller, M.V. Yurkov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  We present the latest update of the baseline parameters of the European XFEL. It is planned that the electron linac will operate at four fixed electron energies of 8.5, 12, 14, and 17.5 GeV. Tunable gap undulators provide the possibility to change the radiation wavelength in a wide range. Operation with different bunch charges (0.02, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 nC) provides the possibility to operate XFEL with different radiation pulse duration. We also discuss potential extension of the parameter space which does not require new hardware and can be realized at a very early stage of the European XFEL operation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP033  
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MOP035 Optimum Undulator Tapering of SASE FEL: Theory and Experimental Results From FLASH2 ion, undulator, electron, radiation 113
 
  • E. Schneidmiller, M.V. Yurkov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Optimization of the amplification process in FEL amplifier with diffraction effects taken into account results in a specific law of the undulator tapering.* It is a smooth function with quadratic behavior in the beginning of the tapering section which transforms to a linear behavior for a long undulator. In practice, an undulator consists of a sequence of modules of fixed length separated with intersections. Two modes of undulator tapering can be implemented: step tapering and smooth tapering. Step tapering uses a step change of the undulator gap from module to module, while smooth tapering assumes additional linear change of the gap along each module. In this report, we simulate the performance of both experimental options and compare with theoretical limit.
* E.A. Schneidmiller and M.V. Yurkov, Optimization of a high efficiency free electron laser amplifier, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 18-030705 (2015).
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP035  
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MOP037 Opportunities for Two-Color Experiments at the SASE3 Undulator Line of the European XFEL ion, electron, undulator, photon 121
 
  • S. Serkez, G. Geloni, T. Mazza, M. Meyer
    XFEL. EU, Schenefeld, Germany
  • V. Kocharyan, E. Saldin
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  As is well known, the installation of a simple magnetic chicane in the baseline undulator of an XFEL allows for producing two-color FEL pulses. In this work we discuss the possibility of applying this simple and cost-effective method at the SASE3 soft X-ray beamline of the European XFEL. We consider upgrades of this method that include the further installation of a mirror chicane. We also discuss the scientific interest of this upgrade for the Small Quantum Systems (SQS) instrument, in connection with the high-repetition rate of the European XFEL, and we provide start-to-end simulations up to the radiation focus on the sample, proving the feasibility of our concept. Our proposed setup has been recently funded by the Finnish Research Infrastructure (FIRI) and will be built at SASE3 in 2020-2021.  
poster icon Poster MOP037 [1.849 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP037  
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MOP038 Overview of the Soft X-Ray Line Athos at SwissFEL ion, undulator, photon, electron 125
 
  • R. Ganter, S. Bettoni, H.-H. Braun, M. Calvi, P. Craievich, R. Follath, C.H. Gough, F. Löhl, M. Paraliev, L. Patthey, M. Pedrozzi, E. Prat, S. Reiche, T. Schmidt, A.Z. Zandonella
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
 
  The Athos line will cover the photon energy range from 250 to 1900 eV and will operate parallel to the hard x-ray line Aramis of SwissFEL. Athos consists of fast kicker magnets, a dog-leg transfer line, a small linac and 16 APPLE undulators. The Athos undulators follow a new design: the so-called APPLE X design where the 4 magnet arrays can be moved radially in a symmetric way. Besides mechanical advantages of such a symmetric distribution of forces, this design allows for easy photon energy scans at a constant polarization or for the generation of transverse magnetic gradients. Another particularity of the Athos FEL line is the inclusion of a short magnetic chicane between every undulator segment. These chicanes will allow the FEL to operate in optical klystron mode, high-brightness SASE mode, or superradiance mode. A larger delay chicane will split the Athos line into two sections such that two colors can be produced with adjustable delay. Finally a post undulator transverse deflecting cavity will be the key tool for the commissioning of the FEL modes. The paper will present the current status of this four years project started in 2017.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP038  
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MOP039 Possible Method for the Control of SASE Fluctuations ion, electron, undulator, bunching 129
 
  • N. Thompson
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  It is well known that because the SASE FEL starts up from the intrinsic electron beam shot noise, there are corresponding fluctuations in the useful properties of the output pulses which restrict their usability for many applications. In this paper, we discuss possible new methods for controlling the level of fluctuations in the output pulses.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP039  
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MOP041 Commissioning of FEL-Based Coherent Electron Cooling System ion, electron, SRF, gun 132
 
  • V. Litvinenko, Z. Altinbas, R. Anderson, S.A. Belomestnykh, K.A. Brown, J.C.B. Brutus, A.J. Curcio, A. Di Lieto, C. Folz, D.M. Gassner, T. Hayes, R.L. Hulsart, P. Inacker, J.P. Jamilkowski, Y.C. Jing, D. Kayran, R. Kellermann, R.F. Lambiase, G.J. Mahler, M. Mapes, A. Marusic, W. Meng, K. Mernick, R.J. Michnoff, T.A. Miller, M.G. Minty, G. Narayan, P. Orfin, D. Phillips, I. Pinayev, T. Rao, D. Ravikumar, J. Reich, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, S.K. Seberg, F. Severino, B. Sheehy, J. Skaritka, L. Smart, K.S. Smith, L. Snydstrup, V. Soria, R. Than, C. Theisen, J.E. Tuozzolo, J. Walsh, E. Wang, G. Wang, D. Weiss, B. P. Xiao, T. Xin, A. Zaltsman, Z. Zhao
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • C.H. Boulware, T.L. Grimm
    Niowave, Inc., Lansing, Michigan, USA
  • K. Mihara
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
  • I. Petrushina
    SUNY SB, Stony Brook, New York, USA
  • K. Shih
    SBU, Stony Brook, New York, USA
  • W. Xu
    PKU, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  Funding: DoE NP office, grant DE-FOA-0000632, NSF grant PHY-1415252
In this talk we are presenting the most recent results from the commissioning of unique Coherent Electron Cooling system, which is using an FEL amplifier to facilitate cooling of hadrons by an electron beam. We present achieved results as well as changes we encountered in the process.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP041  
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MOP042 Status of Seeding Development at sFLASH ion, electron, laser, experiment 136
 
  • V. Grattoni, R.W. Aßmann, J. Bödewadt, I. Hartl, T. Laarmann, C. Lechner, M.M. Mohammad Kazemi, A. Przystawik
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • A. Azima, M. Drescher, W. Hillert, L.L. Lazzarino, V. Miltchev, J. Roßbach
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • S. Khan, N.M. Lockmann, T. Plath
    DELTA, Dortmund, Germany
 
  The experimental seeding setup at FLASH has operated now for two years in high-gain harmonic generation mode. Using a transverse deflecting structure downstream of the seeding section allows a temporal characterization of seeded electron bunches. In addition, temporal characterization of the seeded FEL beam can be performed in a dedicated diagnostic hutch. In this contribution, we give an overview of the latest achievements and present an outlook of the planned studies.  
poster icon Poster MOP042 [1.718 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP042  
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MOP043 Plasma Wakefield Accelerated Beams for Demonstration of FEL Gain at FLASHForward ion, plasma, injection, electron 140
 
  • P. Niknejadi, A. Aschikhin, C. Behrens, S. Bohlen, R.T.P. D'Arcy, J. Dale, L. Di Lucchio, M. Felber, B. Foster, L. Goldberg, J.-N. Gruse, Z. Hu, S. Karstensen, A. Knetsch, O. S. Kononenko, V. Libov, K. Ludwig, A. Martinez de la Ossa, F. Marutzky, T.J. Mehrling, J. Osterhoff, C.A.J. Palmer, K. Poder, P. Pourmoussavi, M. Quast, J.-H. Röckemann, J. Schaffran, L. Schaper, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, S. Schreiber, S. Schröder, J.-P. Schwinkendorf, B. Sheeran, M.J.V. Streeter, G.E. Tauscher, V. Wacker, S. Weichert, S. Wesch, P. Winkler, S. Wunderlich, J. Zemella
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • A.R. Maier
    CFEL, Hamburg, Germany
  • A.R. Maier, A. Martinez de la Ossa, M. Meisel, J.-H. Röckemann
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • C.B. Schroeder
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • V. Wacker
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by Helmholtz ARD program and VH-VI-503
FLASHForward is the Future-ORiented Wakefield Accelerator Research and Development project at the DESY free-electron laser (FEL) facility FLASH. It aims to produce high-quality, GeV-energy electron beams over a plasma cell of a few centimeters. The plasma is created by means of a 25 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. The plasma wakefield will be driven by high-current-density electron beams extracted from the FLASH accelerator. The project focuses on the advancement of plasma-based particle acceleration technology through the exploration of both external and internal witness-beam injection schemes. Multiple conventional and cutting-edge diagnostic tools, suitable for diagnosis of short electron beams, are under development. The design of the post-plasma beamline sections will be finalized based on the result of these aforementioned diagnostics. In this paper, the status of the project, as well as the progress towards achieving its overarching goal of demonstrating FEL gain via plasma wakefield acceleration, is discussed.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP043  
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MOP044 Commissioning Status of the European XFEL Photon Beam System ion, photon, MMI, undulator 144
 
  • F. Le Pimpec
    XFEL. EU, Hamburg, Germany
 
  The European XFEL located in the Hamburg region in Germany has finished its construction phase and is currently being commissioned. The European XFEL facility aims at producing X-rays in the range from 260~eV up to 24~keV out of three undulators that can be operated simultaneously with up to 27000~pulses/second. The FEL is driven by a 17.5~GeV linear accelerator based on TESLA-type superconducting accelerator modules. The accelerator has finished its first commissioning phase and is currently delivering photon beam to the experimental areas for commissioning in view to the user operation. This paper presents the status of the photon beam system from the undulators to the 3 experimental areas as well as the status of each instruments.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP044  
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MOP048 A Compact THz FEL at KAERI: the Project and the Status ion, undulator, electron, GUI 156
 
  • S.V. Miginsky, S. Bae, B.A. Gudkov, K.H. Jang, Y.U. Jeong, K. Lee, J. Mun, S. Setiniyaz
    KAERI, Daejon, Republic of Korea
  • S. H. Park
    Korea University Sejong Campus, Sejong, Republic of Korea
 
  A new compact THz free electron laser driven by a microtron is being recently developed at KAERI. It uses a hybrid electromagnetic undulator. A novel scheme of injection/extraction/outcoupling is developed. The machine is partially assembled and commissioned. Characteristic features and current state are described in the paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP048  
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MOP050 Present Status of Infrared FEL Facility at Kyoto University ion, undulator, cathode, operation 162
 
  • H. Zen, T. Kii, S. Krainara, K. Masuda, H. Ohgaki, J. Okumura, S. Suphakul, S. Tagiri, K. Torgasin
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
 
  A mid-infrared free electron laser (FEL) named KU-FEL has been developed for promoting energy-related research at the Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University.* KU-FEL can cover the wavelength range from 3.6 to 23 micrometers and is routinely operated for internal and external user experiments. Recently a THz Coherent Undulator Radiation (CUR) source using a photocathode RF gun has been developed as an extension of the facility.* As the result of commissioning the experiment, it was confirmed that the CUR source can cover the frequency range from 160 to 550 GHz. Present status of these infrared light sources will be presented.
* H. Zen et al., Physics Procedia 84, pp.47-53 (2016).
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP050  
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MOP051 Polish In-Kind Contribution to European XFEL: Status in Summer 2017 ion, cavity, HOM, linac 166
 
  • J.A. Lorkiewicz, K. Chmielewski, Z. Gołębiewski, W.C. Grabowski, K. Kosinski, K. Kostrzewa, P. Krawczyk, I.M. Kudla, P. Markowski, K. Meissner, E.P. Plawski, M. Sitek, J. Szewiński, M. Wojciechowski, Z. Wojciechowski, G. Wrochna
    NCBJ, Świerk/Otwock, Poland
  • J. Świerbleski, M. Duda, M. Jezabek, K. Kasprzak, A. Kotarba, K. Krzysik, M. Stodulski, M. Wiencek
    IFJ-PAN, Kraków, Poland
  • P.B. Borowiec
    Solaris National Synchrotron Radiation Centre, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
  • M. Chorowski, P. Duda, A. Iluk, K. Malcher, J. Polinski, E. Rusinski
    WRUT, Wrocław, Poland
  • J. Fydrych
    ESS, Lund, Sweden
  • J. Glowinkowski, M. Winkowski, P. Wlk
    Wroclaw Technology Park, Wroclaw, Poland
  • P. Grzegory, G. Michalski
    Kriosystem, Wroclaw, Poland
  • J.K. Sekutowicz
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  In the years 2010-2017, some of the Polish research institutes took responsibility of production and delivery of certain components or test procedures for the EU-XFEL sc linear electron accelerator and elements of slow control systems for the first six XFEL experimental instruments. The presentation summarizes the output of the work on design and manufacturing of cryogenic transfer lines for supercritical helium transport and two vertical cryostats for low-power acceptance tests of sc cavities. The cryogenic installations were prepared by Wroclaw University of Science and Technology and its subcontractors. A team of Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow was in charge of preparation and performance of acceptance tests for XFEL sc cavities, accelerator modules and sc magnets. Two teams of National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ)in Świerk were involved in the project. One of them was responsible for design, manufacturing, testing and delivery of 1648 high-order mode couplers, 824 pick-up antennae and 108 beam-line absobers. The other NCBJ group was obliged to deliver 200 modules containing programmable logic controller terminals to be used at the ends of SASE x-ray beam lines.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP051  
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MOP054 CLARA Facility Layout and FEL Schemes ion, undulator, laser, electron 178
 
  • D.J. Dunning
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  CLARA is a new FEL test facility being developed at STFC Daresbury Laboratory in the UK. Commissioning has started on the front-end (photo-injector and linac) while the design of the later stages is still being finalised. We present the latest design work, focusing on the layout and specification of components in and around the undulator sections. We give an overview of the design and modelling of the FEL schemes planned to be tested.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP054  
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MOP055 SCLF: An 8-GeV CW SCRF Linac-Based X-Ray FEL Facility in Shanghai ion, undulator, electron, linac 182
 
  • Z.T. Zhao, D. Wang, L. Yin
    SINAP, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
  • Z.H. Yang
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
 
  The Shanghai Coherent Light Facility (SCLF) is a newly proposed high repetition-rate X-ray FEL facility, based on an 8-GeV CW superconducting RF linac. It will be located at Zhangjiang High-tech Park, close to the SSRF campus in Shanghai, at the depth of ~38m underground and with a total length of 3.1 km. Using 3 phase-I undulators, the SCLF aims at generating X-rays between 0.4 and 25 keV at rates up to 1MHz. This paper describes the design concepts of this hard X-ray user facility.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP055  
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MOP059 Synchronized Mid-Infrared Pulses at the Fritz Haber Institute IR-FEL ion, cavity, electron, laser 188
 
  • R. Kiessling, S. Gewinner, A. Paarmann, W. Schöllkopf, M. Wolf
    FHI, Berlin, Germany
 
  The combined application of FEL radiation and femtosecond table-top lasers for two-color spectroscopy demands an accurate pulse synchronization. In order to employ the Infared FEL at the Fritz Haber Institute for non-linear and time-resolved experiments, an RF-over-fiber-based timing system has been established. Using a balanced optical cross-correlation scheme, we determined an FEL micro-pulse timing jitter of 100-200 fs (rms). The long-term timing drift was found to be well correlated to the energy fluctuations of the accelerated electron bunches. By means of the jitter-corrected cross-correlation signal, we directly measure the FEL pulse shape at different cavity detunings. For large cavity detuning, narrowband IR radiation (~ 0.3 % FWHM) can be generated and utilized for high-resolution non-linear spectroscopy. On the other hand, sub-picosecond pulses are provided at small detuning, which are well-suited for time-resolved measurements. At intermediate detuning values, we observe the build-up and dynamics of multipulses that result in the well-known limit-cycle power oscillations.  
poster icon Poster MOP059 [1.535 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP059  
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MOP061 X-ray Regenerative Amplifier Free-Electron Laser Concepts for LCLS-II ion, electron, simulation, cavity 192
 
  • G. Marcus, Y. Ding, J.P. Duris, Y. Feng, Z. Huang, J. Krzywinski, T.J. Maxwell, D.F. Ratner, T.O. Raubenheimer
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • K.-J. Kim, R.R. Lindberg, Yu. Shvyd'ko
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • D.C. Nguyen
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
 
  High-brightness electron beams that will drive the next generation of high-repetition rate X-ray FELs allow for the possibility of optical cavity-based feedback. One such cavity-based FEL concept is the Regenerative Amplifier Free-Electron Laser (RAFEL). This paper examines the design and performance of possible RAFEL configurations for LCLS-II. The results are primarily based on high-fidelity numerical particle simulations that show the production of high brightness, high average power, fully coherent, and stable X-ray pulses at LCLS-II using both the fundamental and harmonic FEL interactions.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP061  
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MOP062 X-ray FEL Oscillator Seeded Harmonic Amplifier for High Energy Photons ion, electron, undulator, photon 196
 
  • W. Qin, J. Wu
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • K.-J. Kim, R.R. Lindberg
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
 
  High-power, high-energy X-ray pulses in the range of several tens of keV have important applications for material sciences.* The unique feature of an X-ray FEL Oscillator (XFELO) makes it possible to seed a harmonic amplifier to produce such high energy photons.** In this contribution, we present simulation studies using 14.4-keV output pulses from an XFELO to generate harmonics around 40 keV (3rd harmonic) and 60 keV (4th harmonic). Techniques such as undulator tapering and fresh bunch lasing are considered to improve the amplifier performance.
* MaRIE project: http://www.lanl.gov/science-innovation/science-facilities/marie/.
** K.-J. Kim, XFELO-Seeded Amplifier, talk on MaRIE workshop, 2016.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP062  
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MOP064 An Experimental Setup for Probing the Thermal Properties of Diamond Regarding Its Use in an XFELO ion, laser, electron, experiment 200
 
  • C.P. Maag, I. Bahns, J. Roßbach, P. Thiessen
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • H. Sinn
    XFEL. EU, Hamburg, Germany
  • J. Zemella
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by BMBF (FKZ 05K13GU4 + FKZ 05K16GU4)
This work presents an pump-probe setup for measuring the thermal evolution of diamond crystals at cryogenic temperatures under the heat load conditions of an X-ray free electron laser oscillator (XFELO). As the diamond Bragg reflectors of an XFELO are subjected to intense heat loads during operation, the correct understanding of the thermal evolution in diamond plays a major role in the correct modeling of an XFELO. Stoupin et al.* did a room temperature x-ray diffraction measurement on the nanosecond transient thermal response of diamond to an optical pulse. The measurements presented in this paper for the first time incorporate effects due to the very short penetration depth of only a few μm of an XFELO pulse in combination with the high mean free path in diamond at cryogenic temperatures. While at room temperature the heat equation based on Fourier's law accurately fits the measured results, this vastly changes due to the onset of ballistic processes at cryogenic temperatures. These changes, which are hard to predict theoretically, show the necessity of measurements of the thermal evolution in diamond with special regard to a correct mimicking of the heat load in an XFELO.
*S. Stoupin et al., Phys. Rev. B, vol. 86, p. 054301, 2012.
 
poster icon Poster MOP064 [2.239 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP064  
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MOP066 Free Electron Lasers in 2017 ion, electron, undulator, laser 204
 
  • P.J. Neyman
    Compass Scientific Engineering, Compass Manufacturing Services, Fremont, USA
  • J. Blau, K. R. Cohn, W.B. Colson
    NPS, Monterey, California, USA
  • S.C. Gottschalk
    STI Optronics, Inc., Redmond, USA
  • A.M.M. Todd
    AES, Medford, New York, USA
 
  Forty-one years after the first operation of the short wavelength free electron laser (FEL) at Stanford University, there continue to be many important experiments, proposed experiments, and user facilities around the world. Properties of FELs in the infrared, visible, UV, and x-ray wavelength regimes are tabulated and briefly discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-MOP066  
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TUA01 Recent FEL Experiments at FLASH ion, undulator, laser, electron 210
 
  • S. Schreiber, E. Schneidmiller, M.V. Yurkov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  The FLASH free-electron laser user facility at DESY (Hamburg, Germany) provides high brilliance SASE FEL radiation in the XUV and soft X-ray wavelength range. With the recent installation of a second undulator beamline (FLASH2), variable-gap undulators are now available. They now allow various experiments not possible with the FLASH1 fixed gap undulators. We report on experiments on tapering, harmonic lasing, reverse tapering, frequency doubling at FLASH2 and experiments using double pulses for specific SASE and THz experiments at FLASH1.  
slides icon Slides TUA01 [4.124 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUA01  
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TUA04 Suppression of the CSR Effects at a Dogleg Beam Transport Using DBA Lattice ion, electron, optics, operation 216
 
  • T. Hara, T. Inagaki, C. Kondo, H. Maesaka, Y. Otake, H. Tanaka, K. Togawa
    RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Hyogo, Japan
  • K. Fukami
    JASRI/SPring-8, Hyogo, Japan
  • T. Hasegawa, O. Morimoto, S. Nakazawa, M. Yoshioka
    SES, Hyogo-pref., Japan
 
  Multi-beamline, multi-user operation is an important issue of linac-based XFELs to improve usability and efficiency of facilities. At SACLA, the multi-beamline operation had been tested since 2015 using two beamlines (BL2 and BL3). But the CSR effects at a 3-degree dogleg beam transport of BL2 caused a projected emittance growth and instability of the beam orbit due to a high peak current of 10 kA and a short bunch duration of SACLA. Consequently, stable lasing was obtained only for elongated electron bunches with low peak currents below 3 kA. To mitigate the CSR effects, the beam optics of the dogleg was rearranged. The new beam optics are based on two DBA (double bend achromatic) structures and the transverse effects of CSR are cancelled between four bending magnets. To avoid the bunch length change, the electron beam passes an off-center orbit at the quadrupole magnets of DBA. Under the new beam optics, stable lasing has been successfully obtained with 10 kA electron bunches, and the parallel operation of the two beamlines will be started in September 2017 for user experiments.  
slides icon Slides TUA04 [7.334 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUA04  
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TUB01 Seeding Experiments and Seeding Options for LCLS II ion, photon, electron, laser 219
 
  • E. Hemsing, R.N. Coffee, W.M. Fawley, Y. Feng, B.W. Garcia, J.B. Hastings, Z. Huang, G. Marcus, D.F. Ratner, T.O. Raubenheimer
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • G. Penn, R.W. Schoenlein
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
 
  We discuss the present status of FEL seeding experiments toward the soft x-ray regime and on-going studies on possible seeding options for the high repetition soft x-ray line at LCLS-II. The seeding schemes include self-seeding, cascaded HGHG, and EEHG to reach the 1-2 nm regime with the highest possible brightness and minimal spectral pedestal. We describe relevant figures of merit, performance expectations, and potential issues.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUB01  
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TUB03 ASU Compact XFEL ion, electron, laser, emittance 225
 
  • W.S. Graves, J.P.J. Chen, P. Fromme, M.R. Holl, R. Kirian, L.E. Malin, K.E. Schmidt, J. Spence, M. Underhill, U. Weierstall, N.A. Zatsepin, C. Zhang
    Arizona State University, Tempe, USA
  • K.-H. Hong, D.E. Moncton
    MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  • C. Limborg-Deprey, E.A. Nanni
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by NSF Accelerator Science award 1632780, NSF BioXFEL STC award 1231306 and DOE contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.
ASU is pursuing a concept for a compact x-ray FEL (CXFEL) that uses nanopatterning of the electron beam via electron diffraction and emittance exchange to enable fully coherent x-ray output from electron beams with an energy of a few tens of MeV. This low energy is enabled by nanobunching and use of a short-pulse laser field as an undulator, resulting in an XFEL with 10 m total length and modest cost. The method of electron bunching is deterministic and flexible, rather than dependent on SASE amplification, so that the x-ray output is coherent in time and frequency. The phase of the x-ray pulse can be controlled and manipulated with this method so that new opportunities for ultrafast x-ray science are enabled using e.g. attosecond pulses, very narrow linewidths, or extremely precise timing among multiple pulses with different colors. These properties may be transferred to large XFELs through seeding with the CXFEL beam. Construction of the CXFEL accelerator and laboratory are underway, along with initial experiments to demonstrate nanopatterning via electron diffraction. An overview of the methods, project, and new science enabled are presented.
 
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DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUB03  
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TUB04 Recent On-Line Taper Optimization on LCLS ion, electron, undulator, experiment 229
 
  • J. Wu, X. Huang, T.O. Raubenheimer
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • A. Scheinker
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
 
  Funding: The work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 and the US DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program grant FWP-2013-SLAC-100164.
High-brightness XFELs are demanding for many users, in particular for certain types of imaging applications. Self-seeding XFELs can respond to a heavily tapered undulator more effectively, therefore seeded tapered FELs are considered as a path to high-power FELs in the terawatts level. Due to many effects, including the synchrotron motion, the optimization of the taper profile is intrinsically multi-dimensional and computationally expensive. With an operating XFEL, such as LCLS, the on-line optimization becomes more economical than numerical simulation. Here we report recent on-line taper optimization on LCLS taking full advantages of nonlinear optimizers as well as up-to-date development of artificial intelligence: deep machine learning and neural networks.
 
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TUC01 Polarization Control of Storage Ring FELs Using Cross Polarized Helical Undulators ion, polarization, undulator, controls 235
 
  • J. Yan, H. Hao, S.F. Mikhailov, V. Popov, Y.K. Wu
    FEL/Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
  • S. Huang
    PKU, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • J.L. Li
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • V. Litvinenko
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
  • N.A. Vinokurov
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
 
  For more than two decades, accelerator researchers have been working to gain control of polarization of synchrotron radiation and FELs using non-optical means. In 2005, the first experimental demonstration of polarization control of an FEL beam was realized with the Duke storage-ring FEL. With the recent upgrade of the undulator system, the Duke FEL can be operated with up to four helical undulators simultaneously. Using two sets of helical undulators with opposite helicities, for the first time, we have demonstrated full polarization control of a storage ring FEL. First, the helicity switch of the FEL beam has been realized with good lasing up to a few Hz. Second, the linearly polarized FEL beam has been generated with a high degree of polarization (Plin>0.95). The FEL polarization direction can be fully controlled using a buncher magnet. Furthermore, the use of non-optical means to control the FEL polarization allows us to extend polarization control to gamma-ray beams generated using Compton scattering. This has been experimentally demonstrated with the production of linearly polarized Compton gamma-ray beams with rotatable polarization direction based upon helical undulators.  
slides icon Slides TUC01 [5.921 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUC01  
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TUC02 Thermal and Mechanical Stability of Bragg Reflectors under Pulsed XFEL Radiation ion, radiation, laser, photon 240
 
  • I. Bahns, C.P. Maag, J. Roßbach, P. Thiessen
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • H. Sinn, V. Sleziona
    XFEL. EU, Hamburg, Germany
  • J. Zemella
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Funding: BMBF FKZ 05K16GU4
Free-electron laser(FEL) x-ray radiation can deliver pulses with a huge amount of energy in short time duration. X-ray optics like Bragg reflectors therefore must be chosen in a way that they can withstand radiation-material interaction without getting damaged so that they can maintain their technical functionality. Therefore thermal and mechanical reactions of Bragg reflectors to the radiation induced thermal strain and force (radiation pressure) have been considered in this study. The theory of thermoelasticity has been used to simulate the strain conditions at saturation of the amplifying process in an X-ray free-electron laser oscillator(XFELO). One aim of this study was to investigate, if the radiation pressure could be an effect that gives a considerable contribution to the strain propagation. The results of the simulations have shown that, if Bragg backscattering of the X-ray pulse by a diamond crystal with 99% reflectivity and 1% absorptivity is assumed, the value of the thermally induced strain is about two magnitudes higher than the radiation pressure induced strain.
 
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TUC04 Enhancement of Radiative Energy Extraction in an FEL Oscillator by Post-Saturation Beam Energy Ramping ion, electron, laser, wiggler 244
 
  • H. S. Marks, A. Gover
    University of Tel-Aviv, Faculty of Engineering, Tel-Aviv, Israel
  • E. Dyunin, Yu. Lurie
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel
 
  We present experimental results showing a greater than 50% increase in post-saturation radiation power extraction from a Free Electron Laser oscillator based on an electrostatic accelerator. Electrostatic accelerator free electron laser oscillators have the potential for CW operation. Present day operating oscillators rely on long pulses of electrons, tens of microseconds in duration; they generate correspondingly long radiation pulses, at a single longitudinal mode after a mode competition process. The presented post-saturation power extraction enhancement process is based on temporal tapering (up-ramping) of the beam energy, enabling a large synchrotron oscillation swing of the trapped electron bunches in passage along the interaction length. We further discuss the theoretical limits of the temporal tapering efficiency enhancement process.  
slides icon Slides TUC04 [2.647 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUC04  
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TUC05 Start-to-End Simulations for an X-Ray FEL Oscillator at the LCLS-II and LCLS-II-HE ion, electron, gun, photon 247
 
  • W. Qin, K.L.F. Bane, Y. Ding, Z. Huang, G. Marcus, T.J. Maxwell
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • S. Huang, K.X. Liu
    PKU, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • K.-J. Kim, R.R. Lindberg
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
 
  The proposed high repetition-rate electron beam from the LCLS-II and LCLS-II High Energy (LCLS-II-HE) upgrade are promising sources as drivers for an X-ray FEL Oscillator (XFELO) operating at both the harmonic and fundamental frequencies. In this contribution we present start-to-end simulations for an XFELO operating at the fifth harmonic with 4 GeV LCLS-II beam and at the fundamental with 8 GeV LCLS-II-HE beam. The electron beam longitudinal phase space is optimized by shaping the photoinjector laser and adjusting various machine parameters. The XFELO simulations show that high-flux output radiation pulses with 1010 photons and 3 meV (FWHM) spectral bandwidth can be obtained with the 8 GeV configuration.  
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DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUC05  
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TUP002 Numerical Studies on RF-Induced Trajectory Variations at the European XFEL ion, cavity, electron, alignment 251
 
  • T. Hellert, B. Beutner, W. Decking, N. Walker
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  At the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser, superconducting TESLA-type cavities are used for acceleration of the driving electron bunches. Due to the high achievable duty cycle, a long radio frequency (RF) pulse structure can be provided, which allows to operate the machine with long bunch trains. The designated pointing stability of the FEL radiation places stringent restrictions on the acceptable trajectory variations of individual electron bunches. Therefore a transverse intra-bunch-train feedback system (IBFB) is located upstream of the undulator section. However, intra-bunch-train variations of RF parameters and misalignment of RF structures induce significant trajectory variations that may exceed the capability of the IBFB. In this paper we give an estimate of the expected RF-induced intra-bunch-train trajectory variations for different machine realizations and investigate methods for their limitation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUP002  
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TUP003 First Beam Halo Measurements Using Wire Scanners at the European XFEL ion, collimation, optics, detector 255
 
  • S. Liu, V. Balandin, B. Beutner, W. Decking, L. Fröhlich, N. Golubeva, T. Lensch
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Beam halo measurements and collimations are of great importance at the European XFEL, especially for the operation at high repetition rates (27000 pulses/s). First beam halo measurements have been performed during the commissioning using the wire scanners installed before and after the ~200 m long post-linac collimation section. We present the measurement results and the comparison of beam halo distributions before and after the collimation section.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUP003  
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TUP004 Longitudinal Phase Space Optimization for the Hard X-ray Self-Seeding ion, simulation, undulator, electron 259
 
  • S. Liu, W. Decking, G. Feng, V. Kocharyan, I. Zagorodnov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • G. Geloni, S. Serkez
    XFEL. EU, Hamburg, Germany
 
  For the implementation of Hard X-ray Self-Seeding (HXRSS) at European XFEL, short electron-beam bunches (FWHM ≤ 50 fs) are preferred to mitigate spatio-temperal coupling effect and to fit to the seeding bump width. Therefore, operations with low charges (< 250 pC) are preferred. Longitudinal phase-space optimization has been performed for the 100 pC case by flattening the current distribution. Start-to-end simulations show that, with the optimized distribution, for the photon energy of 14.4 keV, the HXRSS output power, pulse energy and spectral intensity can be increased by a factor of approximately 2 as compared to the nominal working point.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUP004  
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TUP005 Studies of the Transverse Beam Coupling in the European XFEL Injector ion, coupling, quadrupole, electron 263
 
  • M. Scholz, B. Beutner
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Coupling between the transverse plains leads to an increase of the horizontal and vertical electron beam emittances. The coupling can be measured with dedicated multi quadrupole scans while the correlations of the beam are observed on a screen. In this paper we show the results from first coupling studies in the European XFEL injector.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUP005  
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TUP028 Approximated Expressions for the Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Effect in Bending Magnets ion, electron, radiation, synchrotron 300
 
  • D. Khan, T.O. Raubenheimer
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  In this paper, we describe the development of simplified analytic expressions for the Coherent Synchrotron Radiation's (CSR) root-mean-square induced energy spread, typically found in the bending magnets of short bunch-length charged particle accelerators. The expressions are derived for a Gaussian longitudinal bunch distribution and compared with the full-rigor CSR wakefield integral expressions while entering, traversing and exiting a bending magnet. The validity of the expressions are then tested against ELEGANT with the simulation of an unchirped beam traveling across a bending magnet into a drift section, and the second stage bunch compressor (BC2) of the proposed LCLS-II beamline.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUP028  
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TUP030 An Emittance-Preservation Study of a Five-Bend Chicane for the LCLS-II-HE Beamline ion, emittance, electron, simulation 305
 
  • D. Khan, T.O. Raubenheimer
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  The Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) is an upgrade intended to advance the great success of its predecessor, LCLS-I, to maintain its position at the forefront of X-ray science. The introduction of a niobium-metal superconducting linac for LCLS-II not only increases the repetition rate to the MHz level (from 120 Hz), but also boasts an average brightness many orders higher (~10,000) than that of LCLS-I. Though, these improvements do not come without a price: the peak brightness suffers by a factor of 10, owing its degradation to the impact of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) diminishing the peak current of the beam in the second bunch compressor (BC2). In this paper, we discuss the impact of implementing a plug-compatible 5-bend chicane for BC2 on the beam's emittance dilution for a high-energy, low-emittance configuration of LCLS-II (LCLS-II-HE). The results are compared with that of a standard 4-bend chicane under various settings in Elegant and CSRTrack.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUP030  
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TUP031 Design of a Dogleg Bunch Compressor with Tunable First-Order Longitudinal Dispersion ion, electron, linac, dipole 309
 
  • W.K. Lau, M.C. Chou, N.Y. Huang, A.P. Lee
    NSRRC, Hsinchu, Taiwan
  • J. Wu
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  A nonlinear bunch compressor has been designed for the proposed NSRRC VUV FEL facility. It is a double dog-leg configuration that provides a first order longitudinal dispersion function (i.e. R56) with a sign opposite to that of a conventional four-dipole chicane. A large variation in the bunch length or the peak current for various operation conditions can be done by tuning R56. This can be realized by changing the longitudinal positions of the outside dipoles and adjusting the quadrupoles and sextupoles settings for desired bunch compression. Residual energy chirp left after bunch compression as revealed from ELEGANT simulation can be corrected by a capacitive dechirper structure when the bunch is slightly over-compressed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUP031  
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TUP038 Experiments in Electron Beam Nanopatterning ion, electron, experiment, simulation 320
 
  • C. Zhang, W.S. Graves, L.E. Malin, J. Spence
    Arizona State University, Tempe, USA
  • D.B. Cesar, J.M. Maxson, P. Musumeci, A. Urbanowicz
    UCLA, Los Angeles, USA
  • R.K. Li, E.A. Nanni, X. Shen, S.P. Weathersby, J. Yang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by NSF Accelerator Science awards 1632780 and 1415583, NSF BioXFEL STC award 1231306, and DOE contracts DE-AC02-76SF00515 and DE-SC0009914.
We report on experiments in nanopatterning electron beams from a photoinjector as a first step toward a compact XFEL (CXFEL). The nanopatterning is produced by Bragg diffraction of relativistic electron beams through a patterned Si crystal consisting of alternating thick and thin strips to produce nanometer-scale electron density modulations. Multi-slice simulations show that the target can be oriented for a two-beam condition where nearly 80% of the elastically scattered electron beam is diffracted into the 220 Bragg peak. An experiment at the two-beam condition measurement has been carried out at the SLAC UED facility showing this effect with 2.26 MeV electrons. We successfully proved a large portion of the main beam is diffracted into 220 spot by tuning the orientation of the sample. Future plans at UCLA are to observe the nanopatterned beam, and to investigate various grating periods, crystal thicknesses, and sample orientations to maximize the contrast in the pattern and explore tuning the period of the modulation. The SLAC measurement results will be presented along with design of the UCLA experiments.
 
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TUP039 Electron Beam Requirements for Coherent Electron Cooling FEL System ion, electron, undulator, bunching 323
 
  • G. Wang, Y.C. Jing, V. Litvinenko
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • J. Ma
    SBU, Stony Brook, New York, USA
 
  Funding: DoE NP office, grant DE-FOA-0000632, NSF grant PHY-1415252.
In this paper, we present results of our studies in amplification of density modulation induced by co-propagating ions in the FEL section of a Coherent Electron Cooling system, as well its interaction with hadrons. We present a set of requirements for electron beam parameters to satisfy for necessary amplification of the density modulation, while preventing loss of the phase information and saturation.
 
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TUP053 The ACHIP Experimental Chambers at PSI ion, electron, experiment, laser 336
 
  • E. Ferrari, M. Bednarzik, S. Bettoni, S. Borrelli, H.-H. Braun, M. Calvi, Ch. David, M.M. Dehler, F. Frei, T. Garvey, V. Guzenko, N. Hiller, R. Ischebeck, C. Ozkan Loch, E. Prat, J. Raabe, S. Reiche, L. Rivkin, A. Romann, B. Sarafinov, V. Schlott, S. Susmita
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • E. Ferrari, L. Rivkin
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • P. Hommelhoff
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
  • J.C. McNeur
    Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nuernberg, University Erlangen-Nuernberg LFTE, Erlangen, Germany
 
  Funding: Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
The Accelerator on a Chip International Program (ACHIP) is an international collaboration, funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, whose goal is to demonstrate that a laser-driven accelerator on a chip can be integrated to fully build an accelerator based on dielectric structures. PSI will provide access to the high brightness electron beam of SwissFEL to test structures, approaches and methods towards achieving the final goal of the project. In this contribution, we will describe the two interaction chambers installed on SwissFEL to perform the proof-of-principle experiments. In particular, we will present the positioning system for the samples, the magnets needed to focus the beam to sub-micrometer dimensions and the diagnostics to measure beam properties at the interaction point.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUP053  
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TUP057 Measurement of Short-Wavelength High-Gain FEL Temporal Coherence Length by a Phase Shifter ion, electron, experiment, radiation 344
 
  • G. Zhou
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • W. Liu
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
  • W. Qin, T.O. Raubenheimer, J. Wu, C. Yang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • C.-Y. Tsai
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
  • B. Yang
    University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, USA
  • M. Yoon
    POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
 
  Funding: The work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 and the US DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program grant FWP-2013-SLAC-100164.
Short-wavelength high-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) are now well established as a source of ultra-fast, ultra-brightness, longitudinally partial coherent light. Since coherence is one of the fundamental properties of light source, so continual effort is devoted to high-gain free-electron laser coherence measurements. In this work, we propose a possible approach, employing a phase shifter to induce electron beam delay to measure the temporal coherence length. Simple analysis, numerical simulation and preliminary experimental results are presented. This approach can be robust and independent of frequency.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUP057  
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TUP058 Slippage-Enhanced SASE FEL ion, undulator, electron, laser 348
 
  • J. Wu, A. Brachmann, K. Fang, A. Marinelli, C. Pellegrini, T.O. Raubenheimer, C.-Y. Tsai, C. Yang, M. Yoon, G. Zhou
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • H.-S. Kang, G. Kim, I.H. Nam
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  • B. Yang
    University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, USA
 
  Funding: The work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 and the US DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program grant FWP-2013-SLAC-100164.
High-brightness XFEL is demanding for many users, in particular for certain types of imaging applications. Seeded FELs including self-seeding XFELs were successfully demonstrated. Alternative approaches by enhancing slippage between the x-ray pulse and the electron bunch were also demonstrated. This class of Slippage-enhanced SASE (SeSASE) schemes can be unique for FEL spectral range between 1.5 keV to 4 keV where neither grating-based soft x-ray self-seeding nor crystal-based hard x-ray self-seeding can easily access. SeSASE can provide high-brightness XFEL for high repetition rate machines not suffering from heat load on the crystal monochromator. We report start-to-end simulation results for LCLS-II project and PAL-XFEL project with study on tolerance. Performance comparison between SaSASE FEL and self-seeding FEL in the overlapping frequency range is also presented.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUP058  
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TUP059 Alternative Electron Beam Slicing Methods for CLARA and X-ray FELs ion, laser, electron, simulation 352
 
  • D.J. Dunning, H.M. Castaneda Cortes, S.P. Jamison, T.A. Mansfield, N. Thompson, D.A. Walsh
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • D. Bultrini, S.P. Jamison, N. Thompson
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • D. Bultrini
    University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
 
  Methods to generate ultra-short radiation pulses from X-ray FELs commonly slice a relatively long electron bunch to feature one (or more) short regions of higher beam quality which then lase preferentially. The slotted foil approach spoils the emittance of all but a short region, while laser-based alternatives modulate the electron beam energy, improving potential synchronisation to external sources. The CLARA FEL test facility under development in the UK will operate at 100-400 nm, aiming to demonstrate FEL schemes applicable at X-ray wavelengths. We present new laser-based slicing schemes which may better suit the wavelength range of CLARA and provide options for X-ray facilities.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUP059  
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TUP070 Development of Mid-Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy System for Solid Samples at Kyoto University Free Electron Laser Facility ion, experiment, laser, electron 378
 
  • J. Okumura, T. Kii, H. Ohgaki, H. Zen
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
 
  Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) enables IR absorption spectrum measurements of solid samples without preprocessing of samples. Its sensitivity and resolution depend on the intensity and spectral width of the infrared light, respectively. Mid-infrared free electron laser (MIR-FEL) is an intense, quasi-monochromatic and tunable laser in MIR region, so the method of PAS with FEL (FEL-PAS) was proposed.*,** However, the resolution was not so good since they used the direct FEL beam which has the spectral width of 1%. We considered that the resolution can be significantly increased by inserting a high-resolution grating monochromator before the PAS cell. Based on this consideration, a PAS system using an MIR-FEL with the monochromator is under development. We have already conducted preliminary experiments using a PAS cell which has been used in previous studies and successfully measured quite high PAS signals with this setup.*,** A demonstration of experiments to check the spectral resolution will be conducted soon. In this presentation, the progress of the development including the result of demonstration experiments will be reported.
* M. Yasumoto et al., Proceedings of the 2004 FEL Conference, 703-705 (2004).
** M. Yasumoto et al., Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics, 153, 37-40 (2008).
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUP070  
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TUP071 Study on Second Harmonic Generation in SiC Using Infrared FEL ion, experiment, scattering, detector 382
 
  • S. Tagiri
    Kyoto Univeristy, Kyoto, Japan
  • T. Kii, H. Ohgaki, H. Zen
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
 
  Mode-selective phonon excitation (MSPE) is an attractive method for studying the lattice dynamics (e.g. electron-phonon interaction and phonon-phonon interaction). In addition, MSPE can control electronic, magnetic, and structural phases of materials. In 2013, we have directly demonstrated MSPE of a bulk material (6H-SiC) with MIR-FEL (KU-FEL) by anti-Stokes (AS) Raman-scattering spectroscopy. Recently, we have certified that the Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) also occurs with AS Raman scattering. For distinguishing between the AS Raman scattering and SFG, we need to know the nonlinear susceptibility and transmittance. The coefficients can be measured by the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) spectroscopy. In this paper, the outline of the measurement system and the preliminary results with a 6H-SiC sample are reported.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUP071  
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TUP072 Simulation of Phase Shifters Between FEL Amplifiers in Coherent Electron Cooling ion, wiggler, electron, radiation 386
 
  • Y.C. Jing, V. Litvinenko, I. Pinayev
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • V. Litvinenko
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
 
  Coherent electron Cooling (CeC) is a proposed advanced beam cooling method that has the potential of reducing the ion beam emittance in significantly shorter amount of time compared to existing cooling methods. A high-gain FEL, composed of three permanent magnet helical wigglers, is acting as an amplifier of the ion's signals picked up by electron beam in CeC. A self-consistent simulation which takes the space and possible phase shifts between wigglers into account is crucial in determining the performance of the FEL. The authors developed an algorithm based on the well-used GENESIS code to properly treat the propagation of particles and radiations in between wigglers and predicted the FEL performance with different beamline layouts. The authors will present their simulation setup and results and provide hardware requirements for future operations and research at CeC.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-TUP072  
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WEA01 European XFEL Injector Commissioning Results ion, emittance, gun, operation 389
 
  • B. Beutner
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  In the first commissioning phase of the European XFEL SASE FEL driver linac, we demonstrated the design goals for the injector section. These goals include reliable operation of sub-systems and feasible beam parameters like emittance and bunch length of the beam produced by the RF gun. Of particular interest is the operation of long bunch trains with up to 2700 bunches with a 4.5 MHz repetition rate. In this presentation we will provide an overview of our experiences from the injector commissioning run including beam dynamics studies, diagnostics, and system performance.  
slides icon Slides WEA01 [4.633 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEA01  
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WEB03 R&D at SLAC on Nanosecond-Range Multi-MW Systems for Advanced FEL Facilities ion, kicker, experiment, linac 404
 
  • A.K. Krasnykh, A.L. Benwell, T.G. Beukers, D.F. Ratner
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by US Department of Energy contract DE-AC02-76SF00515
A nanosecond-range, multi-MW system containing TEM mode electrodynamic structures fed by controllable pulsers are needed for (1) fast injection systems in multi-bend achromat upgraded (MBA-U) storage rings and for (2) arrays of FEL beamlines powered by a superconducting linear accelerators operating with MHz-bunch repetition rate. The R&D effort covers both type (1) and (2) layouts. This report discuss the experimental results of several concepts for a generation of the nanosecond range multi MW pulsers. Compression of the initially formed electromagnetic (EM) power is employed for a generation of the nanosecond pulses in all concepts discussed here. A solid-state nonlinear media assists the EM compression. Features of the materials and components used in the design will be presented. The results will be included in the design of the kicker systems for advanced FEL facilities. For example, in the LCLS-II, the nanosecond range pulse allows for distributing closely spaced bunches to multiple undulators allowing experimenters to take advantage of combining different colored x-rays.
 
slides icon Slides WEB03 [6.521 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEB03  
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WEB04 Laser-to-RF Synchronization with Femtosecond Precision ion, laser, LLRF, operation 407
 
  • T. Lamb, L. Butkowski, E.P. Felber, M. Felber, M. Fenner, S. Jabłoński, T. Kozak, J.M. Müller, P. Prędki, H. Schlarb, C. Sydlo, M. Titberidze, F. Zummack
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Optical synchronization systems are already in regular operation in many FELs, or they will eventually be implemented in the future. In FLASH and the European XFEL, phase-stable optical reference signals are provided by a pulsed optical synchronization system in order to achieve low timing jitter FEL performance. The generation of phase-stable RF signals from a pulsed optical synchronization system is still a field of active research. The optical reference module (REFM-OPT), designed at DESY for operation in both FELs, employs a laser-to-RF phase detector, based on an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The phase drift of the 1.3 GHz RF reference signals with respect to the optical pulses is measured and actively corrected within the REFM-OPT at multiple locations in the accelerator. Therefore the REFM-OPT provides phase stable 1.3 GHz RF reference signals at these locations. The short-term and long-term performance in the accelerator tunnel of the European XFEL is presented and carefully reviewed.  
slides icon Slides WEB04 [5.683 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEB04  
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WEC02 Optimization of Superconducting Undulators for Low Repetition Rate FELs ion, undulator, electron, vacuum 411
 
  • J.A. Clarke, K.B. Marinov, B.J.A. Shepherd, N. Thompson
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • V. Bayliss, J. Boehm, T.W. Bradshaw, A.J. Brummitt, S.J. Canfer, M.J.D. Courthold, B. Green, T. Hayler, P. Jeffery, C. Lockett, D.S. Wilsher
    STFC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, United Kingdom
  • S. Milward, E.C.M. Rial
    DLS, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom
 
  Superconducting undulators (SCUs) optimized for storage rings and MHz-level FELs require an intermediate beam screen to intercept the power deposited by the electron beam, due to resistive wall wakefields, to prevent magnet quenching. This beam screen increases the magnet gap by around 2 mm which is a significant increase when compared to the typical electron beam aperture of around 5 mm. However, lower repetition rate FELs only deposit of the order of tens of mW/m and so the beam screen is no longer needed resulting in a significant reduction in undulator magnet gap. We have investigated the impact of this reduced magnet gap and found that the magnetic field level increases greatly. For example, an SCU with a 15 mm period and 5 mm aperture optimized for a low repetition rate FEL instead of a storage ring will generate a field of 2.1 T compared to 1.4 T. Such a major increase in undulator performance could have a significant impact on the optimization of FELs. This paper describes how an SCU optimized for application in a FEL will be able to generate magnetic field levels far beyond those currently foreseen for any other magnet technology.  
slides icon Slides WEC02 [6.234 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEC02  
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WEP004 Calculations for a THz SASE FEL Based on the Measured Electron Beam Parameters at PITZ ion, simulation, electron, undulator 419
 
  • P. Boonpornprasert, M. Krasilnikov, F. Stephan
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
 
  The Photo Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ), develops high brightness electron sources for modern linac-based Free Electron Lasers (FELs). The PITZ accelerator can also be considered as a suitable machine for the development of an IR/THz source prototype for pump-probe experiments at the European XFEL. Calculations of THz radiation by means of a SASE FEL based on the simulated and the measured beam profiles at PITZ for the radiation wavelength of 100 microns were performed by using the GENESIS1.3 code. The results of these simulations are presented and discussed in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP004  
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WEP018 Electron Beam Heating with the European XFEL Laser Heater ion, laser, electron, undulator 458
 
  • M. Hamberg
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  • F. Brinker, I. Hartl, S. Koehler, B. Manschwetus, M. Scholz, L. Winkelmann
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by Swedish Research council, Sweden, Olle Engkvist foundation and DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
The commissioning of the European XFEL is ongoing. To reduce unwanted longitudinal micro-bunching effects, a laser heater is implemented. Here we present the first heating steps and commissioning of the laser heater at the injector section.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP018  
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WEP019 High Stable Pulse Modulator for PAL-XFEL* ion, klystron, power-supply, electron 460
 
  • S.S. Park, H.-S. Kang, S.H. Kim, H.-S. Lee
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
 
  Funding: Work supported by Ministry of Science, ICT(Information/Communication Technology) and Future Planning.
The XFEL of Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) commissioned the 10 GeV PAL-XFEL project in 2015. The PAL-XFEL needs a highly-stable electron beam. The very stable beam voltage of a klystron-modulator is essential to provide the stable acceleration field for an electron beam. Thus, the modulator system for the XFEL requires less than 50 ppm PFN voltage stability. To get this high stability on the modulator system, the HVPS of inverter type is an important component. The modulator also needs lower noise and more smart. In this paper, we will discuss the design and the test results of the high-stability pulse modulator system.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP019  
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WEP026 Inducing Microbunching in the CLARA FEL Test Facility ion, laser, electron, bunching 475
 
  • A.D. Brynes
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  We present simulation studies of the laser heater interaction in the CLARA FEL test facility using a non-uniform laser pulse. The microbunching instability, which manifests itself as correlated energy or density modulations in an electron bunch, can degrade the performance of an FEL. Most x-ray free electron lasers (FELs) utilise a so-called laser heater system to impose a small increase in the uncorrelated energy spread of the bunch at low energy to damp the instability – this technique involves imposing a laser pulse on the bunch while it is propagating through an undulator in a dispersive region. However, if the instability can be controlled, the electron bunch profile can be manipulated, yielding novel applications for the FEL, or for generation of THz radiation. Control of the microbunching instability can be achieved by modulating the intensity profile of the laser heater pulse to impose a non-uniform kick along the electron bunch. We have simulated this interaction for various laser intensity profiles and bunch compression factors.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP026  
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WEP031 Using A Neural Network Control Policy For Rapid Switching Between Beam Parameters in an FEL ion, network, controls, undulator 488
 
  • A.L. Edelen, S. Biedron, S.V. Milton
    CSU, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
  • P.J.M. van der Slot
    Mesa+, Enschede, The Netherlands
 
  FEL user facilities often must accommodate requests for a variety of beam parameters. This usually requires skilled operators to tune the machine, reducing the amount of available time for users. In principle, a neural network control policy that is trained on a broad range of operating states could be used to quickly switch between these requests without substantial need for human intervention. We present preliminary results from an ongoing study in which a neural network control policy is investigated for rapid switching between beam parameters in a compact THz FEL.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP031  
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WEP036 Adaptive Feedback for Automatic Phase-Space Tuning of Electron Beams in Advanced XFELs ion, controls, electron, feedback 496
 
  • A. Scheinker
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  • D.K. Bohler
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Particle accelerators are extremely complex having thousands of coupled, nonlinear components which include magnets, laser sources, and radio frequency (RF) accelerating cavities. Many of these components are time-varying. One example is the RF systems which experience unpredictable temperature-based perturbations resulting in frequency and phase shifts. In order to provide users with their desired beam and thereby light properties, LCLS sometimes requires up to 6 hours of manual, experience-based hand tuning of parameters by operators and beam physicists, during a total of 12 hours of beam time provided for the user. Even standard operational changes can require hours to switch between user setups. The main goal of this work is to study model-independent feedback control approaches which can work together with physics-based controls to make overall machine performance more robust, enable faster tuning (seconds to minutes instead of hours), and optimize performance in real time in response to un-modeled time variation and disturbances.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP036  
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WEP040 Sub-Femtosecond Time-Resolved Measurements Based on a Variable Polarization X-Band Transverse Deflecting Structures for SwissFEL ion, undulator, diagnostics, polarization 499
 
  • P. Craievich, M. Bopp, H.-H. Braun, R. Ganter, M. Pedrozzi, E. Prat, S. Reiche, R. Zennaro
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • R.W. Aßmann, F. Christie, R.T.P. D'Arcy, B. Marchetti, D. Marx
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • N. Catalán Lasheras, A. Grudiev, G. McMonagle, W. Wuensch
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The SwissFEL project, under commissioning at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), will produce FEL radiation for soft and hard X-rays with pulse durations ranging from a few to several tens of femtoseconds. A collaboration between DESY, PSI and CERN has been established with the aim of developing and building an advanced X-Band transverse deflector structure (TDS) with the new feature of providing variable polarization of the deflecting force. As this innovative CERN design requires very high manufacturing precision to guarantee highest azimuthal symmetry of the structure to avoid the deterioration of the polarization of the streaking field, the high-precision tuning-free assembly procedures developed at PSI for the SwissFEL C-band accelerating structures will be used for the manufacturing. Such a TDS will be installed downstream of the undulators of the soft X-ray beamline of SwissFEL and thanks to the variable polarization of the TDS, it will be possible to perform a complete characterization of the 6D phase-space. We summarize in this work the status of the project and its main technical parameters.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP040  
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WEP041 HLS to Measure Changes in Real Time in the Ground and Building Floor of PAL-XFEL, Large-Scale Scientific Equipment ion, linac, real-time, undulator 503
 
  • H. J. Choi, J.H. Han, H.-S. Kang, S.H. Kim, H.-G. Lee, S.B. Lee
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
 
  A variety of parts that comprise large-scale scientific equipment should be installed and operated at accurate three-dimensional location coordinates (X, Y, Z) through survey and alignment in order to ensure optimal performance. However, uplift or subsidence of the ground occurs over time, and consequently causes the deformation of building floors. The deformation of the ground and buildings cause changes in the location of installed parts, eventually leading to alignment errors (ΔX, ΔY, ΔZ) of components. As a result, the parameters of the system change and the performance of large-scale scientific equipment is degraded. Alignment errors that result from changes in building floor height can be predicted by real-time measurement of changes in building floors. This produces the advantage of reducing survey and alignment time by selecting the region where great changes in building floor height are shown and re-aligning components in the region in a short time. To do so, HLS (hydrostatic leveling sensor) with a resolution of 0.2 micrometers and a waterpipe of 1 km are installed at the PAL-XFEL building. This paper introduces the installation and operation status of HLS.  
poster icon Poster WEP041 [0.832 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP041  
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WEP051 Helical Undulators for Coherent Electron Cooling System ion, undulator, electron, hadron 519
 
  • I. Pinayev, Y.C. Jing, R. Kellermann, V. Litvinenko, J. Skaritka, G. Wang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • I.V. Ilyin, Y. Kolokolnikov, P. Vobly
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
 
  Funding: DoE NP office, grant DE-FOA-0000632
In this paper we present the description and results of the magnetic measurements and tuning of helical undulators for the Coherent electron Cooling system (CeC). The FEL section of the CeC comprises three 2.5-m long undulators separated by 40-cm drift sections, where BPMs and phase-adjusting 3-pole wigglers are located. We present design, tuning techniques and achieved parameters of this system.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP051  
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WEP054 The Magnetic Field Integral Hysteresis on the European XFEL Gap Movable Undulator Systems ion, undulator, radiation, electron 522
 
  • F. Wolff-Fabris, Y. Li, J. Pflüger
    XFEL. EU, Schenefeld, Germany
 
  The European XFEL GmbH is a new X-ray FEL facility expected to be lasing to users at the end of 2017. Three gap-movable SASE Undulator Systems are designed to produce FELs with tunable wavelengths from 0.05 to 5.2nm.*,** A total of 91 5m long undulator segments and phase shifters were magnetically tuned respecting tight specifications. Magnetic field hysteresis effects due to the gap shift of the Undulator System while changing the FEL radiation wavelength may impact the machine's operational mode. We report on these effects by either opening or closing the gap while performing field integrals measurements with moving wire technique. The undulator segments show negligible magnetic hysteresis and are expected to be operated with no influence to the FEL and beam trajectories in either feed forward or feed backward mode. The phase shifters show first field integrals hysteretic behavior of few G.cm which is comparable in magnitude to the allowed total field integrals and can be associated to the magnetization of the yoke structure. Phase shifters are magnetically tuned for that the feed forward mode (opening gap) fully satisfies the XFEL. EU magnetic specifications for beam operation.
* M. Altarelli et al., Technical Design Rep. DESY 2006-097, July 2007.
** E. Schneidmiller et al., European XFEL Technical Rep. TR-2011-006, Sep. 2011.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP054  
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WEP055 Tapered Flying Radiofrequency Undulator ion, undulator, electron, simulation 525
 
  • S.V. Kuzikov, A.V. Savilov, A.A. Vikharev
    IAP/RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
  • S.P. Antipov, A. Liu
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio, USA
  • A.V. Savilov
    UNN, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
 
  Funding: This project is supported by DoE Small Business Innovative Research phase I grant #DE-SC0017145.
We propose an efficient XFEL consisting of sequential RF undulator sections using: 1) tapered flying RF undulators, 2) short pulse, high peak-power RF and 3) driving undulator sections by spent electron beam. In a flying RF undulator, an electron bunch propagates through a high-power, nanosecond, co-propagating RF pulse. Helical waveguide corrugation supports a space harmonic with a negative propagation constant, providing a large Doppler up-shift. The undulator tapering technique improves FEL efficiency by 1-2 orders of magnitude in comparison with other facilities by decreasing the undulator period so that particles are trapped in the combined field of the incident x-ray and undulator field. We develop a so-called non-resonant trapping regime not requiring phase locking for feeding RF sources. Simulations show that by decreasing the corrugation periodicity one can vary an equivalent undulator period by 15%. The spent electron beam can be used to produce wakefields that will drive the RF undulator sections for interaction with the following beam. We have already manufactured and tested the 30 GHz simplified version of the 50 cm long undulator section for cold measurements.
 
poster icon Poster WEP055 [1.565 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP055  
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WEP056 Effect of Beam Transverse Angle Deflection in TGU on FEL Power ion, electron, radiation, undulator 529
 
  • G. Zhou, J.Q. Wang
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • J. Wu
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Funding: The work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 and the US DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program grant FWP-2013-SLAC-100164.
Recent study shows that electron beams with constant dispersion together with the transverse-gradient undulator (TGU) can reduce the sensitivity to energy spread for free-electron laser (FEL). By inducing dispersion function, electrons with different energy are placed at different positions corresponding to proper magnetic fields. Thus, FEL resonant condition can be kept for electrons with different energy. In this paper, we mainly studied: 1.The effects of electron beam angle deflection at the entrance of the TGU on the radiation power. 2. The utility of a kicker to introduce an angle deflection of electron beam to improve the FEL radiation power.
 
poster icon Poster WEP056 [0.638 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP056  
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WEP057 Design of a Compact Hybrid Undulator for the THz Radiation Facility of Delhi Light Source (DLS) ion, undulator, radiation, electron 532
 
  • S. Tripathi, R.K. Bhandari, S. Ghosh, D. Kanjilal
    IUAC, New Delhi, India
  • U. Lehnert
    HZDR, Dresden, Germany
  • M. Tischer
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Funding: One author, Sumit Tripathi (PH/16-17/0029), would like to acknowledge University Grant Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India for financial support as D.S.Kothari Postdoctoral fellowship.
A compact Free Electron Laser (FEL) facility to produce coherent THz radiation is in the development stage at Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India.*,** The name of this facility is Delhi Light Source (DLS) in which a low-emittance electron beam from a photocathode RF gun with a maximum energy of 8 MeV will be injected into a compact undulator magnet to generate THz radiation. To produce the THz radiation in the range of 0.15 to 3.0 THz, the electron beam energy and the undulator gap need to be varied from 4 to 8 MeV and 20 to 45 mm, respectively. The variable gap undulator of 1.5-m length will consist of NdFeB magnets with vanadium permendur poles. The magnet design and dimensions are optimised by using code 3D RADIA.*** The detailed design of the compact hybrid undulator will be presented in this paper.
* S.Ghosh et al., presented at this conference.
** S.Ghosh et al., NIMB-2017 (in press).
*** RADIA. Available at http://www.esrf.eu/Accelerators/ groups/
Insertion Devices/ Software/ Radia.
 
poster icon Poster WEP057 [1.117 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP057  
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WEP061 Thermal Stress Analysis of a Thin Diamond Crystal Under Repeated Free Electron Laser Heat Load ion, laser, electron, free-electron-laser 539
 
  • J. Wu
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • B. Yang
    University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, USA
 
  Funding: The work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 and the US DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program grant FWP-2013-SLAC-100164.
Thin crystals are used in many important optical elements, such as monochromator and spectrometer, in XFELs. To function properly, they must survive the ever-increasing heat load under repeated pulses. Here, we conduct a thermal stress analysis to examine the crystal lattice distortion due to the thermal load under various rep rates from 0.1 to 1 MHz. The thermal field is obtained by solving the transient heat transfer equations. The temperature-dependent material properties are used. It is shown that for pulse adsorption energy around tens of microjoule over a spot size of 10 micrometer, the thermal response of diamond is sensitive to rep rate. The thermal strain components are very different in the in- and out-of-plane directions, due to different constraint conditions. It suggests complicated strain effects in the Bragg and Laue diffraction cases.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP061  
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WEP062 Optical Beam Quality Analysis of the Clara Test Facility Using Second Moment Analysis ion, undulator, brightness, electron 543
 
  • H.M. Castaneda Cortes, D.J. Dunning, M.D. Roper, N. Thompson
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  We studied and characterised the FEL optical radiation in simulations of the CLARA FEL test facility under development at Daresbury Laboratory in the UK. In particular, we determined the optical beam quality coefficient, waist position and other source properties corresponding to different potential FEL operating modes via wavefront propagation in free space using OPC (Optical Propagation Code) and Second Moment Analysis. We were able to find the operation mode and undulator design for which the optical beam has the optimum quality at highest brightness. Furthermore, we studied the way that different properties of the electron bunches (emittance, peak current, bunch length) affect the optical beam. We are now able to understand how the optical beam will propagate from the end of the undulator and through the photon transport system to the experimental stations. This knowledge is necessary for the correct design of the photon transport and diagnostic systems.  
poster icon Poster WEP062 [0.495 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP062  
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WEP063 A Two-in-One Type Undulator undulator, ion, photon, electron 547
 
  • D. Wang, H.X. Deng, Z. Jiang
    SINAP, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
 
  Funding: This work is supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China.
The typical X-ray free electron lasers have long tunnels to accommodate high energy electron linear accelerator and long undulator line to produce intense coherent radiations at very short wavelengths. The number of undulator lines is limited by the available space in the tunnel. This is especially true for those facilities that adopt underground tunnels or utilize the existing tunnels originally built for other purpose. This work explored the possibility to better use the tunnel space for accommodating more FEL undulator lines by designing a new type of undulator structure.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP063  
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WEP074 Simulations of the Dependence of Harmonic Radiation on Undulator Parameters ion, undulator, radiation, electron 560
 
  • G. Penn
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.
The flux and bandwidth of radiation produced at harmonics of the fundamental are very sensitive to the undulator parameter, and thus the beam energy or undulator period. We look at high-energy XFELs with parameters relevant to the MaRIE FEL design. Both SASE and seeded FELs are considered.
 
poster icon Poster WEP074 [0.414 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP074  
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WEP078 Period-Averaged Symplectic Maps for the FEL Hamiltonian ion, radiation, electron, wiggler 563
 
  • S.D. Webb
    RadiaSoft LLC, Boulder, Colorado, USA
 
  Funding: This work was carried out with support for the United State Department of Energy, Office of Scientific Research, under SBIR contract number DE-SC0017161.
Conventional treatments of synchrotron radiation in electron beams treat the radiation as a non-Hamiltonian aspect to the beam dynamics. However, the radiation can be modeled with an electromagnetic Hamiltonian. We present a period-averaged treatment of the FEL problem which includes the Hamiltonian aspects of the coupled electron-radiation dynamics. This approach is then applied to two problems: a 3D split-operator symplectic integrator, and a 1D single-mode FEL treated using Hamiltonian perturbation theory.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-WEP078  
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THB02 Non-Standard Use of Laser Heater for FEL Control and THz Generation ion, laser, electron, controls 566
 
  • E. Allaria, L. Badano, M.B. Danailov, A.A. Demidovich, S. Di Mitri, D. Gauthier, L. Giannessi, G. Penco, E. Roussel, P. Sigalotti, S. Spampinati, M. Trovò, M. Veronese
    Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Basovizza, Italy
  • E. Roussel
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
 
  The laser heater system is currently used at various FEL facilities for an accurate control of the electron beam energy spread in order to suppress the micro-bunching instabilities that can develop in high brightness electron beams. More recently, studies and experiments have shown that laser-electron interaction developing in the laser heater can open new possibilities for tailoring the electron beam properties to meet special requirements. A suitable time-shaping of the laser heater pulse opened the door to the generation of (tens of) femtosecond-long FEL pulses. Using standard laser techniques it is also possible to imprint onto the electron bunch, energy and density modulations in the THz frequency range that, properly sustained through the accelerator, can be exploited for generation of coherent THz radiation at GeV beam energies. Such recent results at the FERMI FEL are here reported, together with near future plans.  
slides icon Slides THB02 [14.882 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-THB02  
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FRB01 Time-Domain Analysis of Attosecond Pulse Generation in an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser ion, radiation, electron, undulator 569
 
  • P. Baxevanis, Z. Huang, A. Marinelli
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  The method of enhanced self-amplified spontaneous emission (eSASE) is one of the strongest candidates for the generation of sub-femtosecond X-ray pulses in a free-electron laser. The optimization of an eSASE experiment involves many independent parameters, which makes the exploration of the parameter space with 3-D simulations computationally intensive. Therefore, a robust theoretical analysis of this problem is extremely desirable. We provide a self-consistent, analytical treatment of such a configuration using a one-dimensional, time-dependent FEL model that includes the key effects of linear e-beam chirp and linear undulator taper. Verified via comparison with numerical simulation, our formalism is also utilized in parameter studies that seek to determine the optimum setup of the FEL.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-FRB01  
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FRB04 Canonical Formulation of 1D FEL Theory Revisited, Quantized and Applied to Electron Evolution ion, electron, radiation, undulator 576
 
  • P.M. Anisimov
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
 
  An original FEL theory relied on quantum analysis of photon generation by relativistic electrons in alternating magnetic field.* In most cases, however, the system of pendulum equations for non-canonical variables and the theory of classical electromagnetism proved to be adequate. As XFELs advance to higher energy photons, quantum effects of electron recoil and shot noise has to be considered. This work presents quantization procedure based on the Hamiltonian formulation of an XFEL interaction in 1D case. The procedure relates the conventional variables to canonical coordinates and momenta and does not require the transformation to the Bambini-Renieri frame.** The relation of a field operator to a photon annihilation operator reveals the meaning of the quantum FEL parameter, introduced by Bonifacio, as a number of photons emitted by a single electron before the saturation takes place.*** The quantum description is then applied to study how quantum nature of electrons affects the startup of XFEL and how quantum electrons become indistinguishable from a classical ensemble of electrons due to their interaction with a ponderomotive potential of an XFEL.
* Madey JMJ 1971 J. Appl. Phys. 42 1906 13.
** Bambini A and Renieri A 1978 Lett. Nuovo Cimento 21 399-404.
*** Bonifacio R, Piovella N, Robb G R M and Schiavi A 2006 PRSTAB 9 090701.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-FRB04  
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FRB05 Wide Bandwidth, Frequency Modulated Free Electron Laser ion, undulator, radiation, electron 581
 
  • L.T. Campbell, B.W.J. MᶜNeil
    USTRAT/SUPA, Glasgow, United Kingdom
 
  The resonant frequency of a free electron laser may be modulated via the undulator or electron beam parameters. This modulation may generate sidebands which can subsequently undergo amplification, analogous to frequency modulation in a conventional cavity laser. However, due to the relative slippage of the light through the relativistic electron beam, the FM-FEL system has a more complex behavior than its conventional laser counterpart. The system may be described in the linear regime by a summation over exponential gain modes, allowing the amplification of multiple light frequencies simultaneously. It is found that, with only small, few percent variations of the FEL parameters, one may generate and amplify multiple modes within a frequency bandwidth which greatly exceeds that of normal FEL operation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-FEL2017-FRB05  
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